Libya’s revolution quickly went from peaceful protests to armed conflict. Long-time ruler Muammar Gaddafi attempted to violently supress protestors, which led to a NATO intervention.
With the death of Gaddafi, Libya’s interim government, the National Transition Council, declared the entire country’s liberation.
Al Jazeera looks back at some of the key developments since the uprising against Gaddafi began.
February 17, 2011, The Day of Revolt
The first major protests and violent clashes in Libya actually began two days before, on February 15, mostly in Benghazi. Hundreds gathered outside the police station, and a number of protesters were killed.
But February 17 was the official “day of revolt,” an effort to bring thousands of protesters into the streets . Major demonstrations were reported in Benghazi, Ajdabiya, Darnah and Zintan, among others. Gaddafi forces responded by firing live ammunition at the crowds. More than a dozen demonstrators were killed.
Gaddafi reportedly released dozens of prisoners from jail and paid them to fight against the protesters.
The “day of revolt” coincided with the fifth anniversary of a major anti-Gaddafi protest in Benghazi.
Protests continued to escalate after February 17, and there were widespread reports that Gaddafi had hired mercenaries to supplement his security forces and suppress the demonstrations.
February 20, Rebels take Benghazi
After several days of fighting, and hundreds of people killed, anti-Gaddafi fighters seized control of Libya’s second city.
Cities further east, including Baida and Tobruk, were already under rebel control at this point. Doctors at Benghazi’s ill-equipped hospitals said more than 300 people were killed in several days of fighting , which included numerous attacks on funeral processions.
The key event in the battle for Benghazi was the fall of the Katiba , the city’s well-stocked military garrison staffed by, among other units, the feared Khamis Brigade. Fighters armed with rifles and homemade bombs laid siege to the garrison for several days, and a reported suicide car bomber eventually blew a hole in the building’s gate, allowing the fighters inside.
Gaddafi would continue to launch sporadic attacks on Benghazi in the weeks to come, but would never regain control of the city.
March 10, Gaddafi bombs Brega; retakes Zawiyah, Bin Jawad
Further west, though, the early weeks of the war did not go well for the rebels.
Residents in the “rebel capital” grew increasingly fearful of bombing raids from Gaddafi’s air force.After an initial advance, Gaddafi began pushing the rebels back. His military shelled Ras Lanuf, a key oil port in eastern Libya, and seized the nearby town of Brega; there was also fierce fighting in Ajdabiya, another stop on the road to Benghazi.
A small revolt in Zawiyah, 50km to the east of Tripoli, was quickly crushed by Gaddafi’s forces; that early defeat made many Libyans in the east reluctant to oppose the government.
Gaddafi delivered several memorable speeches on Libyan state TV in late February and early March. He often blamed the protests on foreign intervention , and threatened to hunt down the protesters – “alley to alley, house to house.”
The rebel losses in the east were a major reason for the push for a no-fly zone over Libya.
March 19, NATO starts bombing Libya
After a debate, the United Nations Security Council voted to impose a no-fly zone over Libya. Ten of the council’s 15 members voted “yes,” while five – Russia, China, India, Germany and Brazil – abstained.
The resolution called for international military action to protect civilians. It would be enforced primarily by NATO, with logistical support from several Arab countries, including Qatar and the United Arab Emirates.
French jets began bombing Libya just hours after the resolution was passed , with bombers from the United States, the United Kingdom and other countries joining shortly afterward.
Rebel commanders would frequently complain about the pace of NATO air strikes (they wanted more), and several of them missed their intended targets and killed rebel fighters instead. But the bombing campaign was undeniably a major reason why Gaddafi’s military advance halted in mid-March.
May 15, Gaddafi forces withdraw from Misrata
The seaside city of Misrata was besieged for months by Gaddafi forces; they surrounded it and frequently lobbed mortars downtown.
Hundreds of civilians and rebel fighters were killed, and thousands more wounded, during weeks of fighting in the city centre and near the port. Civilians reported appalling living conditions: scarce food and water, little to no electricity, and a severe shortage of medical supplies.
NATO planes began bombing the city in late April, targeting Gaddafi’s tanks and artillery. Rebels began their own counter-offensive on April 25, pushing slowly from the east, seizing the port area and working their way through the city.
A fierce battle on May 11 left the rebels with control of the airport, and four days later they declared the battle for Misrata over.
July 28, Major push in the Western Mountains
Rebel gains in the east slowed down after the Misrata campaign, but they began winning territory in western Libya, allowing them to surround Gaddafi in Tripoli.
The rebels began their push in early June, and for several weeks they reported steady gains, capturing scattered villages and seizing much-needed supplies from the Gaddafi troops stationed in the region.
Their advance was halted in early July at the town of Qawalish. It took several advances to seize the town; rebels had to retreat at one point because they ran out of ammunition.
By late July, the rebels were pushing down from the Nafusa Mountains to towns in the foothills , allowing them to control strategically important roads linking Tripoli to Tunisia – Gaddafi’s main source of supplies.
Rebels would seize several other important towns, including Tiji and Bir al-Ghanam, after the start of Ramadan in August.
August 15, Rebels take Gharyan
The war’s final phase seemed to begin last week, when rebels reported taking control of Gharyan, a town about 80km south of Tripoli.
That victory allowed them to completely encircle the Gaddafi-controlled capital: All of the major highways leading out of Tripoli now pass through rebel-controlled areas.
Control of Gharyan, and the town of Zawiyah in the west, is not yet absolute; there are still reports of scattered shelling by Gaddafi’s artillery. But the Libyan leader has been unable to retake these towns, and with reports of fighting on the streets of Tripoli, his grip on power is weaker than ever.
August 16, Tripoli isolated
Libya’s rebels say they have completed moves to cut off roads to the capital.
August 18, Opposition forces seize vital oil refinery
Reports confirm the oil plant near Az Zawiyah was taken and rebels were in complete control of Gharyan. Battles continued over control of centre of Az Zawiyah city.
August 19, Rebel troops seize Zlitan
Opposition source report more than 30 dead and 120 wounded in operations to further cut-off the capital from its supply lines. According to a Libyan government official, Hassan Ibrahim, the brother of Libyan government spokesman Moussa Ibrahim, was killed by gunfire from a NATO helicopter.
August 20, Tripoli revolts
Opposition cells in Tripoli supported by NATO launched an uprising codenamed “Operation Mermaid Dawn”. Many of the weapons used by rebels had been assembled and sent to Tripoli by tugboat.Rebels suffered high casualties.
August 21, Rebel fighters enter Tripoli
Gaddafi makes two addresses over state TV, calling on Libyans to fight off the rebel “rats”, and saying he is in the capital and will be “with you until the end”. Rebels reach Green Square and rename it Martyrs’ Square.
August 22, Gaddafi’s son reappears
It was believed that Tripoli had largely fallen and there were reports that three of Gaddafi’s sons were captured alive. Later in the day, however, Saif al-Islam Gaddafi showed up outside the Rixos Hotel, posed for pictures and a video and said his father’s forces were still in control of the city. His re-emergence put earlier reports about his capture, and the rebels’ hold on the city, in serious discredit.[
August 23, Battle for Tripoli rages on
Libyan rebels launch massive offensive on Gaddafi’s compound. Rebel fighters mount an attack backed by captured tanks on the compound, in the centre of the capital. The sky was filled with the sound of heavy and light machineguns as well as mortars, with the overhead roar of NATO jets that have been carrying out much more intense air raids than in recent days.
September 1, Libya’s interim rulers meet world leaders
The meeting takes place at a conference in Paris to discuss reshaping Libya. Gaddafi, on the 42nd anniversary of his coming to power, urges his supporters to fight on.
September 8, Interim government in Tripoli
Mahmoud Jibril, the interim prime minister arrives in Tripoli on his first visit since it was taken by his forces.
September 11, Libya starts producing oil again
Niger reprots that Gaddafi’s son Saadi has arrived in the country.
September 13, Interim government’s first speech
Mustafa Abdel Jalil, Interim government chief, makes his first speech in Tripoli to a crowd of about 10,000.
September 15, Cameron and Sarkozy in Libya
Nicolas Sarkozy, the French president and David Cameron, the British prime minister, land in Libya to a heroes’ welcome.
September 16, UN eases sanctions on Libya
The UN Security Council eases sanctions on sanction the national oil company and central bank. The UN General Assembly approves a request to accredit interim government envoys as Libya’s sole representatives at the UN, effectively recognizing the NTC.
September 20, US ambassador returns to Libya
Barack Obama, the US President, calls for the last of Gaddafi’s loyalist forces to surrender as he announces the return of the US ambassador to Tripoli. Gaddafi taunts NATO in a speech broadcast by Syrian-based Arrai television station.
September 21, Sabha captured from Gaddafi loyalists
The interim rulers say they have captured most of Sabha, one of three main towns where Gaddafi loyalists have been holding out since the fall of Tripoli. Gaddafi’s birthplace Sirte and the town of Bani Walid continue to resist.
September 25, Libya ships oil
The first Libyan crude oil to be shipped in months sails from the eastern port of Marsa el Hariga for Italy.
September 27, Interim rulers take control of Libya’s weapons
NATO says Libya’s interim rulers have taken full control of the country’s stockpile of chemical weapons and nuclear material.
October 12, Gadaffi’s son captured
Government fighters capture Gaddafi’s son Mutassim after he tried to escape Sirte.
October 13, NTC forces take Sirte
NTC forces say they have control of the whole of Sirte except neighbourhood ‘Number Two’ where Gaddafi forces are surrounded.
October 14, gunfights in Tripoli
Gunfights break out in Tripoli between Gaddafi supporters and NTC forces, the first sign of armed resistance to the new government.
October 17, Bani Walid captured
NTC forces celebrate the capture of Bani Walid, one of the final bastions of Gaddafi loyalists.
October 18, Clinton visits Libya
Hilary Clinton, the US secretary of state, arrives in Libya on an unannounced visit, urges militias to unite.
October 20, Sirte, the last Gaddaffi stronghold, falls
NTC fighters capture Sirte, Gaddafi’s hometown, ending a two-month siege and extinguishing the last significant hold out of troops loyal to the deposed leader.
Abdul Hakim Belhaj, the NTC military chief, confirms that Muammar Gaddafi has died of his wounds after being captured near Sirte.
October 23, Libya is liberated
Mustafa Abdel Jalil, the leader of the NTC, has declared the liberation of Libya eight months after the uprising against Muammar Gaddafi’s 42-year rule began. Jalil kneeled in prayer after taking the stand in a celebration in Benghazi and promised to uphold Islamic law.
“We as a Muslim nation have taken Islamic sharia as the source of legislation, therefore any law that contradicts the principles of Islam is legally nullified,” Jalil told the crowd.
October 24, Gaddafi’s body moved for burial
The bodies of Muammar Gaddafi, his son Mutassim, and a former aide were moved from a commercial freezer in a warehouse area of Misrata where they had been put on display, in anticipation of burial planned for Tuesday.
The NTC also ordered an investigation into the death of Gaddafi after international pressure to examine the circumstances surrounding his death.
“In response to international calls, we have started to put in place a commission tasked with investigating the circumstances of Muammar Gaddafi’s death in the clash with his circle as he was being captured,” Jalil, the head of the NTC, said in Bengazi.
October 25, Gaddafi buried in secret location
Libya’s National Transitional Council buried Muammar Gaddafi, his son Mutassim, and a former aide at a secret location in the desert at dawn, sources told Al Jazeera.
November 19, Saif, Gaddafi’s son, is arrested
Saif al Islam Gaddafi has been arrested near Ubari in southern Libya. In a press conference, Bashir al-Taylib, a military commander, told reporters that Saif al Islam had been captured and will be moved to Zintan.